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Zinc Oxide



Highest degree of determination of the VERDEQUANT process parameters allows the highest degree of reproducibility of the nano- and non-nanoparticles’ physicochemical properties, a crucial prerequisite for reproducible results in any application.


Highest degree of determination of the VERDEQUANT process parameters results in nano- and non-nanoparticles manufactured with highest precision. This increases the surface : volume ratio, enhances the total surface and increases sensitivity and effectiveness.

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Zinc Oxide Nano- and Non-Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are manufactured according to the VERDEQUANT process that substitutes toxic and fossil Ethylene Glycol by bio-based raw materials and guarantees a secure and sustainable route to bio-compatible nano- and non-nano-materials.

A Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) is shown in Figure 1.  Due to the quantum size, metal oxide nanoparticles have optical and electromagnetic properties that are significantly different from those of bulk materials. Due to their large active surface, the semiconductor nanoparticles show enhanced optical behavior and bio-medical activity as the result. These properties make them of value in microelectronics, precise medical diagnostics and therapy. Cosmetics, which take advantage of the enhanced UV A/B protection properties benefit from ZnO NPs.


VERDEQUANT ZnO NPs also provide protection against microorganisms. That qualifies them highly valuable in a diverse range of consumer products, including plastics, detergents, food, fibers and textiles as well as for antimicrobial coatings, keyboards, wound dressings, and medical devices.


VERDEQUANT ZnO NPs are provided as a powder of highest purity. They are ready to unfold their full potential in your research, development, and use in industrial scale in your demanding applications.


Figure 1: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of ZnO NPs with diameters of 25 nm.


Figure 2: Bandgap: In contrast to nanoprobes, fluorescing in the visible spectrum, ZnO in its pure form is a high bandgap semiconductor, suitable for UV-applications.

ZnO  NPs' Optical Properties – Strong UV A/B absorption

In contrast to chemical sun protectors, optical properties of ZnO NPs allow for efficient UV absorption over the entire range for skin protection.

The strong absorption of the ZnO NPs occurs because its bandgap of ca. 3.8 eV  (Figure 2) makes the material an highly efficient absorber over the entire UV A/B spectrum (Figure 3). That allows ZnO NPs to show effective absorbance (scattering & absorption) cross sections several times larger than their physical cross section.

Optical Properties

Figure 3: The spectrum shows constant high absorbance of VERDEQUANT ZnO NPs at <350nm, results from a band-gap of >3.5eV


VERDEQUANT Bio-based Process

Note: “ Verde” [lat.: viridis] means green and is used as a synonym for the bio-based process, while “Quant” represents the quantum properties of nanoparticles (NPs).


Metal oxide (NPs) currently manufactured in quantities tens of tons p. a. globally, often using expensive and potentially toxic reagents. In important applications, like life-science and cosmetics, bio-compatibility is required. An ecologic and economic process to manufacture NPs in larger scale has long been searched for to offer the efficiency of nanotechnology, combined with the advantages of bio-based processes.


VERDEQUANT is programmed to offer solutions to a step-change in many respects:


Ecologic step-change by substituting non-renewable fossil raw materials by non-fossil, biogenic raw materials VERDEQUANT represents a bio-based processes where renewable, non-fossil milk derivatives replaces fossil Ethylene Glycol (EG) as utilized in the standard method for the manufacture of ZnO NPs (Figure 4).


Socioeconomic step-change whereas ZnO NPs manufactured in accordance to the bio-based synthesis, are labelled specifically to help create high-quality end user product, specifically in the pharmaceutics and cosmetics industry.


Technological step-change in the physico-chemical parameters of the ZnO NPs from the bio-based VERDEQUANT process which offers the potential to enhance the quality of the NPs and such that:

  • security for the end user,

  • sensitivity and efficiency in their application (e.g by increasing the active surface area from the same volume), as well as their

  • reproducibility will be significantly improved,

 compared to existing products currently on the market.


Figure 4: 4n is manufacturing its ZnO NPs strictly in compliance with the VERDEQUANT bio-based process.
Left: VEGAN process; Right: biocompatible process; Bottom: Ethylene glycol based traditional process.

Surface Chemistry

ZnO NPs' Surface Chemistry

VERDEQUANT ZnO NPs may be modified to comprise functional groups and metals at their surface applied directly during the manufacturing process.

These functional groups allow a wide range of applications in health and agriculture due to the intrinsic properties of the ZnO NPs (e.g.: antimicrobial agent, optical and electronic properties). VERDEQUANT bio-based manufactured ZnO NPs are intrinsically bio-compatible due to these functional groups and the lack of toxic residuals from other methods, like the ethylene glycol method. In vivo, the bio-compatible NPs would not cause toxic reactions due to the absence of such toxic residuals. ​


ZnO NPs' Applications

VERDEQUANT ZnO NPs are being used in a large variety of technologies and incorporated into consumer products that take advantage of their desirable optical, electronical, and antimicrobial properties (Table 1).

  • Optical Applications: VERDEQUANT ZnO NPs are used in most of today´s commercially available sun-screens with a protecting factor of 30 and larger.
  • Antimicrobial Applications: ZnO NPs are incorporated in antiviral personal protective equipment (PPE), apparel, footwear, paints, wound dressings, appliances, cosmetics, hygiene products and plastics for their antimicrobial properties.
  • Microelectronics Applications: VERDEQUANT ZnO NPs constitute a n-type semiconductor with their band-gap tunable due to size and doping.
  • Biomedical applications: VERDEQUANT ZnO NPs find increasingly application in biomedical diagnostics and therapy, due to their bio-compatibility, optical and therapeutical properties e.g. in cancer diagnostics and therapy.

Table 1: Abbreviations:

  • PV: Photovoltaics

  • TPEF: 2 photon emission fluorescence

  • FM: Fluorescence microscopy

  • AV: Anti-viral

  • AB: Anti-bacterial

  • AF: Anti-fungal

Application note: Zinc oxide nanodiffusers to enhance p3ht:pcbm organic solar cells performance:

ZnO nanodiffusors convert incident direct radiation into diffuse one which increases the pathway within thin film organic solar cells. For more information click here

Purchase ZnO NPs

Two steps to your Zinc Oxide nano and NON-nano particles from 4n:

The high degree of  determination of the parameters of the bio-based VERDEQUANT process allows the highest degree of reproducibility of the ZnO NPs’ physicochemical properties. The high degree of purity and biocompatibility is guaranteed by the VERDEQUANT bio-based process. For entering in contact with us or receiving a quoationn please cliick here

4n offers the manufacture of doped ZnO NPs with organic and inorganic materials for applications in photovoltaics, photocatalysis and all application which benefit e.g.: from modifying the bandgap of undoped ZnO NPs. Please cliick here for entering in contact us to discuss your specific properties.

The VERDEQUANT process substitutes toxic, expensive and fossil Ethylene Glycol by bio-based raw materials. This guarantees a secure and safe route to bio-compatible nanomaterials, based on an efficient and economic process. An international patent is the core of the licensing package and offers protection.

4n produces Zinc Oxide NPs strictly according to VERDEQUANT criterias. For more information, please click at the VERDEQUANT logo:

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